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Different types of Forests

Different types of Forests

India has a diverse range of forests. The forests of India can be classified into 6 categories

  • Moist Tropical Forests
  • Montane Sub Tropical Forests
  • Dry Tropical Forests
  • Montane Temperate Forests
  • Sub Alpine
  • Alpine

Moist Tropical Forests:

The Moist Tropical Forests are divided into 4 subcategories:

Wet evergreen:

Wet evergreen forests are those that are in the southern side of India. This type of forests can be found along the Western Ghats and the Nicobar and Andaman Islands and also in the North Eastern region of our country. The trees that are commonly found in these forests are:

  • Jackfruit
  • Betel Nut Palm
  • Jamun
  • Mango
  • Hollock

Semi-evergreen:

Semi-evergreen forests are found in:

  • Western Ghats
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Eastern Himalayas

These forests have both wet evergreen trees and moist deciduous trees

Moist deciduous:

Moist Deciduous forests are those that are found in major parts of India (except in western and the north-western regions). The common trees of these forests are:

  • Sal And Teak
  • Mango
  • Bamboo
  • Rosewood

Littoral and swamp:

Littoral and swamp forests are found along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and delta areas of great rivers – The Ganga and The Brahmaputra. The common trees of Littoral and swamp forests are:

  • Whistling Pines
  • Mangrove Dates
  • Palms
  • Bulletwood

Dry tropical forests

Dry deciduous forests: These forests are found in most of the northern part of India, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The common trees found in such kind of forests are:

Thorn: Thorn Forests are found in North, West, Central, and South India where the areas are rich in black soil. Trees that dwell in thorn forests are:

Dry evergreen: These forests are found along the coasts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka with commonly have:

  • Hard-leaved evergreen trees
  • Deciduous trees

Montane sub tropical forests

Broad-leaved forests: These are the forests of the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats with much variety of trees namely:

  • Oak
  • Alder
  • Chestnut
  • Birch
  • Cherry
  • Orchids
  • Bamboo
  • Creepers

Pine Forests: Pine Forests are found in the slopes of Shivalik Hills, Western and Central Himalayas, Khasi, Naga, and Manipur Hills. The trees of these forests are:

  • Chir
  • Oak
  • Rhododendron
  • Pine
  • Sal
  • Sandan
  • Amla
  • Laburnum

Dry evergreen Forests:

These forests can be seen in the Shivalik Hills and foothills of the Himalayas up to a height of 1000 meters. The common trees of these forests are:

  • Pomegranate
  • Olive
  • Oleander

Montane temperate forests :

Wet Montane temperate forests: These forests are found in a few regions of Arunachal Pradesh, part of Nilgiri Hills and many regions of Kerala. These trees have abundant amount of trees like:

  • Eucalyptus
  • Rhododendrons
  • Oak
  • Champa

Moist Montane temperate forests: We can find these forests from the Western Himalayas to the Eastern Himalayas. The trees of these forests vary from western section and eastern section; the common trees of these forests are:

  • Broad-Leaved Oak
  • Brown Oak
  • Walnut
  • Rhododendron
  • Bamboo
  • Coniferous Trees

Dry Montane temperate forests: These forests are the forests of Lahul, Kinnaur, Sikkim, and other parts of the Himalayas. Trees like:

  • Oak
  • Maple
  • Fir
  • Juniper
  • Ash
  • Chilgoza
  • Deodar

Sub alpine

Sub alpine forests can be found a long way from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh with trees like:

  • Juniper
  • Rhododendron
  • Willow
  • Black Currant
  • Red Fir
  • Black Juniper
  • Birch
  • Larch

Alpine

Moist Alpine Forests: These forests are found along the Himalayas and near the Myanmar border. The forest has trees and scrubs mainly:

  • Rhododendron
  • Birch
  • Mosses
  • Ferns

Dry Alpine Forests:

These forests are found in regions between 3000 meters to about 4900 meters with Dwarf plants namely:

  • Black Juniper
  • Drooping Juniper
  • Honeysuckle
  • Willow

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