Short Essay on 'B.D. Jatti' (200 Words)


Full name of ‘B.D. Jatti’ was Basappa Danappa Jatti. He was born on 10 September, 1912 at Savalagi village of Bijapur district. At the early age of 10 years, he was married to Sangamma of Bhabhanagar in 1922. His father was a humble grocer. He braved family difficulties and completed his education.

After completing his graduation in Law, Jatti began his legal practice as an advocate for a very short span of time in his home town Jamkhandi. In 1940, he entered politics as a Municipality member at Jamkhandi and subsequently became the President of the Jamkhandi Town Municipality in 1945. Finally he became the ‘dewan’ of Jamkhandi state in 1948.

Jatti was appointed as the Lieutenant Governor of Pondicherry in 1968. He became the Governor of Odisha in 1972 and, in 1974. He assumed office as the fifth Vice-President of India. He became acting President for a brief period after the death of Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed in 1977

Jatti died on 7 June, 2002 at the age of 89. The soft-spoken Jatti rose from a humble beginning as a Municipality member to India’s second-highest office during a five-decade-long chequered political career. He completed his obligations with the constitutional dignity. 




Home school versus formal education

Home school versus formal education

The debate among many people is whether homeschooling kids is better than formal education. The former would be fruitful if home school is done the right way. Children adopt a customized curriculum provided by their parents whereas in a private school, they are forced to learn whatever is taught by the teachers. Each child is unique and the style of learning differs from one child to another. Some children are good at grasping information from textbooks and a theory based method would be useful for them but some of them prefer practical method of teaching where it’s easy for them to remember and this kind of an approach is also more interesting to them.

Parents who home school their kids should provide a more pleasing and healthy learning environment for their kids. Apart from academics, children learn to bond with their family, which is an advantage in home school. Good habits can be instilled in them. Apart from concentrating on academics, children have ample time to develop their talents. Everyone learns from each and every task that we do, whether it is routine or a onetime task. Children can go for music classes, swimming, skating etc. They can do well in their academics as well as extracurricular activities whereas there is a time constraint in private schools. Some schools demand children to be more focused on academics than extracurricular activities, as they need more grades.

More often when parents weigh the options of home school and formal education, one major issue is that kids don’t get an opportunity to socialize if parents home school them. At school, children can play together and participate in competitions. It’s easy for them to socialize but peer influence can change the attitude of your kids easily and it’s difficult for parents to know if their kids are being influenced in the right or the wrong way. Children can always interact and get along with other kids who are being homeschooled by their parents. They tend to become more co operative and disciplined. Kids who are homeschooled will get more attention and discussing about their academics and extracurricular activities becomes easy, as children feel more comfortable in such an environment.

Sending your child to a private school is expensive. Course fee, educational trips, projects, cost of resources, transportation are expensive whereas when parents home school they know what exactly their children need and based on that they can buy the required materials. When your kids join the other homeschooled ones, educational trips will be less expensive and sometimes you need pay even a penny. Some people believe that children who are being home schooled will have difficulty in getting college admissions which will lead to less number of career opportunities but that’s not true as most colleges prefer homeschooled children as they are more disciplined and self motivated to learn new things. In home school, every parent struggles to get their children in the right track in the beginning but ultimately they learn how to home school their kids.




Williamsburg Northside a Brooklyn Elementary School Introduces physical and health education classes

Williamsburg Northside Lower School, a Brooklyn elementary school, offers various health and physical education classes for its students. According to the school, the purpose of the physical education program is to empower the Brooklyn elementary school’s students to sustain regular, lifelong physical activity as a foundation for a healthy, productive, and fulfilling life.

Becoming a physically educated person is a developmental process that begins in early childhood and continues throughout one’s life. The physical education program offers fundamental movement skills in the area of body awareness, spatial orientation, relationships, object manipulation, games, and sports. Principles of good sportsmanship, as well as respectful competition and safety in the gymnasium are emphasized throughout the year. These programs vary according to age groups and grades.

Kindergarten:

The program emphasizes body and spatial awareness, locomotor and non-locomotor skills. Its aim is for children to feel enjoyment and confidence in themselves and their abilities. Goals and activities include:

  • Locomotor skills—hopping, skipping, jumping
  • Non-manipulative skills—balancing, rolling, stretching
  • Manipulative skill—dribbling, volleying, collecting
  • Cooperative games
  •  The ability to demonstrate healthful practices such as washing hands, covering one’s mouth when coughing or sneezing, and brushing and flossing teeth.

First grade:

First grade builds on the skills already learned, with a greater emphasis on manipulative skills. Students of the Brooklyn elementary are also given an opportunity to explore stationary and moving balance as well as health and fitness concepts. Goals and activities include:

  • Experience with manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, volleying, and dribbling
  • Striking with implements—rackets, bats, hockey sticks
  • Introduction to health-and-fitness topics such as the food guide and physical activity pyramids
  • Understand how behaviors such as food selection, exercise, and rest affect growth and development.

Second Grade:

Second grade involves increased interaction between traveling and directions, levels (high, medium, low) and pathways (curved, straight, zigzag). Goals and activities include:

  • Circus arts—juggling, spinning plates
  • Bowling
  • Chasing, fleeing, dodging
  • Kicking and punting
  • The ability to demonstrate the use of interpersonal skills to enhance health

Third Grade:

Third grade builds on the curriculum by working toward demonstrating the mature form of moving in selected combinations of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills. Goals include the ability to:

  • Identify movement in terms of effort (how the body moves), space (where the body moves), and relationships (with objects, people or both).
  • Know and apply principles and components of health-related fitness.
  • Begin to demonstrate mature form in various skills.
  • Develop injury prevention and management strategies for personal health.

Fourth Grade:

Although health issues are integrated throughout the elementary years, they are formally discussed beginning in fourth grade.

1)      Motor: Small-sided games—that is, few players per team—are introduced in fourth grade.

Students use cooperation and problem-solving skills to accomplish group or team goals.

Goals include the ability to:

  • Respond to winning and losing with dignity and understanding
  • Experiences with increased interaction between locomotor skills, non-locomotor skills, and manipulative skills
  • Understand strategies related to offense and defense

 

2)      Health: In fourth grade there is a deeper look into the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. Health is influenced by a variety of factors, including the cultural context as well as media and technology. Students of the Brooklyn elementary school use their critical thinking and problem-solving skills to analyze, evaluate, and interpret the influence of these factors on health. The goals include:

 

  • Describing how culture influences personal health behaviors
  • Explaining how information from school and family influences health
  • Describing ways technology can influence health
  • Explaining how media influences thoughts, feelings, and health behaviors

Fifth Grade:

1)      Motor: Fifth graders begin identifying muscle groups when performing specific actions and applying movement concepts using speed variables. Goals include the ability to:

  • Recognize and communicate feedback
  • Understand fitness components related to cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance and flexibility
  • Understand, respect, and appreciate individuals on the basis of their unique characteristics as well as their contributions to a group.

2)      Health: In fifth grade, the students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the five aspects of health —mental, emotional, physical, social, and spiritual—and the wellness spectrum—a scale showing possible health conditions from premature death to optimal health—and how they relate to overall health. The Brooklyn Elementary students also learn about the negative impact chemical substances can have on health. The program discusses tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, as well as describes the differences between helpful and potentially harmful substances. Objectives include:

  • Identifying ways to cope with or seek assistance as necessary when confronted with situations involving alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
  • Describing the cycle of growth and development in humans and other animal species
  • Using goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health




A place in another country where you would like to work


IELTS Cue Card/ Candidate Task Card 278 with Model Answer:

Describe a place in another country where you would like to work.

You should say:

  • where you would like to work
  • what kind of work/job you would like to have there
  • when you would like to go

and explain why you want to work in that place.

[You
will have to talk about the topic for one to two minutes. You have one
minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes
to help you if you wish.]

Model Answer 1:
At present, I am undergoing my graduation at Allahabad University in India. After the completion of my graduation, I am planning to get a job in China for some specific reasons. Now I will describe my entire plan here.

China is a leading country in the world in terms of everything ranging from agriculture to technology. Shanghai is its capital and so, I am planning to set career of a musician and actor of performing arts in that country. I know very well that at present it is really difficult to get a job after the academic discipline in my country, and hence I have adopted the plan. China is a great country with ample opportunities to expand my career in my desired arena. Moreover, the country has some special incentives for the entrepreneurs and the government provides almost all types of services required for the growth of the business as far as I know but such options are not much available in India.

I prefer to start a musical café as the first phase of my work. In fact, I am planning to start a musical shop where I will teach technical issues of music to students and at the same time, I would serve people in their needs to learn and listen music. My workshop will deal with different types of musical issues. A part of the shop will be dedicated to the training of my students, while the other part will be used to serve the clients. In fact, my plan is to open the musical workshop that will deal with different types of issues including the teaching of musical instruments like guitar, flute, piano, drum and others. Music has a huge potential in China and thus I am planning to do it there.  

My graduation will be completed by next semester. After the completion, I will try to arrange the necessary preparations for my job. If everything goes right with me, I will go there by the next year. In fact, the preparations may take over six months. By this time, I have to arrange permission from the relevant authorities to shift in the country. But achieving the visa is really tough and when it is a long term, the issues become more difficult. The embassy authority does not want to provide a visa for a long time in the other countries and when they will come to know about my plan, there are chances that they will deny my application. But I will keep trying unless I get the permission. 

I am skilled in playing different musical instruments and have completed some courses on music from a reputed institution in India. After a varied number of observations, I realised that the chances of shining with music in the local industry of India are really tough. There are a wide number of musicians are available and competing with them is impossible for me. I do not want to be famous rather want to practice my music. I have been studying Music and Performing Arts at the university for last three and a half years. But the scopes for implementing my academic knowledge and skills are limited for many reasons. And hence, I have decided to move in the foreign land where the opportunities are ample.




Tenses Quiz in English Grammar


Exercise for your English Grammar skills.

You can check below or click this link for the English Grammar Tenses Quiz.

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Describe a worth enjoying theatrical performance


IELTS Cue Card/ Candidate Task Card 268 with Model Answer:

Describe a worth enjoying theatrical performance.

You should say:

  • what the performance was about
  • where it took place
  • how fine the acting and plot were

and explain why it was a worth watching and enjoying theatrical performance.

[You will have to talk about the topic for one to two minutes. You have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes to help you if you wish.]

Model Answer 1:
The annual drama festival of my colleges is worth enjoying and every year, different classes stage their productions in the annual drama festival of the college. Hamlet by Shakespeare was the theatrical performance of my class this year.

The plot of the drama is known to everyone and thus it was the widely accepted one this year and for the extraordinary performance, it got the first prize in the theatrical performance category. The entire performance was enjoyed by the audiences present at the venue and there was pin-drop silence on the venue while the performance was on (under my direction). To make the drama more enjoyable, some minor changes were made and the background was set in the setting of India.

The theatrical performance took place at the college auditorium and it was evening when the audiences started to arrive to enjoy the performance. Though the performance was set to begin at 7.30 pm we got a bit late and it began around 8 o’clock. Two of the leading artists were blocked in traffic and thus made late to arrive in the college. The auditorium was filled with audiences and we were glad to have so many of them present on the performance day. Usually, the annual show is performed under the open sky but due to stormy climate, we had to shift the show inside the auditorium so that rain or other natural calamities could not hamper the performance.

The performance created a blend of reactions from the audiences’ side. Most of the audiences adored the performance while some others were on the view that the local setting of the drama has degraded the entire play. A third part of the audiences were neutral over the plot making and overall performance. Before staging the performance, we declared that this is an experimental performance for us and we also acknowledged that Shakespeare was the greatest dramatist of the world and undoubtedly all of his plots are masterpieces and hence, no criticisms would be entertained against this performance.

This performance gained the title of the best theatrical performance ever made in the college history and almost everyone including the haters of the show had to admit that the performance was impressive. The show was enjoyable as we made some changes in the actual plot and added some characters to bring more fun. However, the other plot elements were the same and the audiences laughed at the additional characters and their performances. In fact, the scriptwriter had to spend lots of hours to tweak the plot and character additions. By the same time, the artists of the play had depicted the characters in perfect manners. So, the entire performance turned worth enjoying and the audience did enjoy the theatrical performance.




350 words Essay on importance of festivals in our life


Festivals are the important part of our culture as well as life. They teach us about your rich heritage, traditions and moral values. Festivals plays an important role in our life so to know about the importance of festivals in our life, read about Essay on importance of festivals in our life.

Here we are with 350 words Essay on importance of festivals in our life describing about the festival celebrations in India and how our society get benefitted from these festival celebrations. Read about Essay on importance of festivals in our life. Read about Essay on importance of festivals in our life.

Essay on importance of festivals in our life

India is a land of festivals, the rich and vibrant festivals are the celebrations of our diverse tradition and culture. In India we celebrate Festivals throughout the year majorly revolve around Lord’s birthdays, traditions, seasonal changes, relationships, and much more. Every region and religions has its own celebrations and festivals, bringing people together and creating a strong bond of humanity.

All the festivals whether celebrated by Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Jains or Sikhs are socially and culturally significant. These festivals create a sense of cultural unity or brotherhood. They also inspire a sense of purity in our heart. India is a peculiar land of various people belong to various religions and speaking various languages. But in-spite of these diversities, India is one because festivals teach us the lesson of unity in diversity.

Since from the childhood, kids witnesses lots of festival celebration in the house. This helps them to understand the rituals and make them familiar with our rich culture developing a liking for the festivals and celebrations. Today we can saw many youngsters participating enthusiastically in festival celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Durga Puja, Christmas without being biased with caste and creed. During the festival, people exchange gifts with one another and celebrate the events together. In fact, it is one of the best times to meet friends and family members which otherwise is not possible.

Festivals also promote tourism as many tourists come to India to witness the various celebrations and to understand the rich heritage of India. People purchase gifts, vehicles, electronic items and many other valuables during the festive period which definitely good for our economy and also bring sound profit to every business. Festival celebrations bring the feeling of charity, feeding the poor and giving them gifts is common practice during the celebrations.

Diwali, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid, Christmas, Gurpurab, Baisakhi and many more festivals are the true mirror of our cultural development and bring us together. Festivals remind us the victory of truth, victory of good over evil, ethical, moral as well as social values of life that blend well with entertainment through celebrations.




Privatization of Professional Education in India

 Privatization of Professional Education in India

IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION

Education is the process of instruction aimed at the all round development of boys and girls. Education dispels ignorance. It is the only wealth that cannot be robbed. Learning includes the moral values and the improvement of character and the methods to increase the strength of mind.

HIGHER AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN INDIA

Higher education in India is gasping for breath, at a time when India is aiming to be an important player in the emerging knowledge economy. With about 300 universities and deemed universities, over 15,000 colleges and hundreds of national and regional research institutes, Indian higher education and research sector is the third largest in the world, in terms of the number of students it caters to.

However, not a single Indian university finds even a mention in a recent international ranking of the top 200 universities of the world, except an IIT Kharagpur ranked at 41, whereas there were three universities each from China, Hong Kong and South Korea and one from Taiwan.

On the other hand, it is also true that there is no company or institute in the world that has not benefited by graduates, post-graduates or Ph.D.s from India be it NASA, IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Bell, Sun, Harvard, MIT, Caltech, Cambridge or Oxford, and not all those students are products of our IITs, IIMs, IISc/TIFR or central universities, which cater to barely one per cent of the Indian student population. This is not to suggest that we should pat our backs for the achievements of our students abroad, but to point out that Indian higher educational institutions have not been able to achieve the same status for themselves as their students seem to achieve elsewhere with their education from here.

While many reasons can be cited for this situation, they all boil down to decades of feudally managed, colonially modelled institutions run with inadequate funding and excessive political interference. Only about 10 per cent of the total student population enters higher education in India, as compared to over 15 per cent in China and 50 per cent in the major industrialised countries. Higher education is largely funded by the state and central governments so far, but the situation is changing fast. Barring a few newly established private universities, the government funds most of the universities, whereas at the college level, the balance is increasingly being reversed.

THE PRIVATISATION EXPERIENCE

The experience over the last few decades has clearly shown that unlike school education, privatisation has not led to any major improvements in the standards of higher andprofessional education. Yet, in the run up to the economic reforms in 1991, the IMF, World Bank and the countries that control them have been crying hoarse over the alleged pampering of higher education in India at the cost of school education. The fact of the matter was that school education was already privatised to the extent that government schools became an option only to those who cannot afford private schools mushrooming in every street corner, even in small towns and villages. On the other hand, in higher education and professional courses, relatively better quality teaching and infrastructure has been available only in government colleges and universities, while private institutions of higher education in India capitalised on fashionable courses with minimum infrastructure.

Nevertheless, successive governments over the last two decades have only pursued a path of privatisation and deregulation of higher education, regardless of which political party ran the government. From the Punnaiah committee on reforms in higher education set up by the Narasimha Rao government to the Birla-Ambani committee set up by the Vajpayee government, the only difference is in their degree of alignment to the market forces and not in the fundamentals of their recommendations.

With the result, the last decade has witnessed many sweeping changes in higher andprofessional education: For example, thousands of private colleges and institutes offering IT courses appeared all across the country by the late 1990s and disappeared in less than a decade, with devastating consequences for the students and teachers who depended on them for their careers. This situation is now repeating itself in management, biotechnology, bioinformatics and other emerging areas. No one asked any questions about opening or closing such institutions, or bothered about whether there were qualified teachers at all, much less worry about teacher-student ratio, floor area ratio, class rooms, labs, libraries etc. All these regulations that existed at one time (though not always enforced strictly as long as there were bribes to collect) have now been deregulated or softened under the self-financing scheme of higher and professional education adopted by the UGC in the 9th five-year plan and enthusiastically followed by the central and state governments.

This situation reached its extreme recently in the new state of Chattisgarh, where over 150 private universities and colleges came up within a couple of years, till the scam got exposed by a public interest litigation and the courts ordered the state government in 2004 to derecognise and close most of these universities or merge them with the remaining recognized ones. A whole generation of students and teachers are suffering irreparable damage to their careers due to these trends, for no fault of theirs. Even government-funded colleges and universities in most states started many “self-financing” courses in IT, biotechnology etc., without qualified teachers, labs or infrastructure and charging huge fees from the students and are liberally giving them marks and degrees to hide their inadequacies.

It is not that the other well established departments and courses in government funded colleges and universities are doing any better. Decades of government neglect, poor funding, frequent ban on faculty recruitments and promotions, reduction in library budgets, lack of investments in modernization leading to obsolescence of equipment and infrastructure, and the tendency to start new universities on political grounds without consolidating the existing ones today threatens the entire higher education system.

Another corollary of this trend is that an educational institution recognized in a particular state need not limit its operations to that state. This meant that universities approved by the governments of Chattisgarh or Himachal Pradesh can set up campuses in Delhi or Noida, where they are more likely to get students from well off families who can afford their astronomical fees. What is more, they are not even accountable to the local governments, since their recognition comes from a far away state. Add to this a new culture of well-branded private educational institutions allowing franchisees at far away locations to run their courses, without being responsible to the students or teachers in any other way. This is increasingly becoming a trend with foreign universities, especially among those who do not want to set up their own shop here, but would like to benefit from the degree-purchasing power of the growing upwardly mobile economic class of India. Soon we might see private educational institutions getting themselves listed in the stock market and soliciting investments in the education business on the slogan that its demand will never see the sunset.

The economics of imparting higher education are such that, barring a few courses in arts and humanities, imparting quality education in science, technology, engineering, medicine etc. requires huge investments in infrastructure, all of which cannot be recovered through student fees, without making higher education inaccessible to a large section of students. Unlike many better-known private educational institutions in Western countries that operate in the charity mode with tuition waivers and fellowships (which is one reason why our students go there), most private colleges and universities in India are pursuing a profit motive. This is the basic reason for charging huge tuition fees, apart from forced donations, capitation fees and other charges. Despite huge public discontent, media interventions and many court cases, the governments have not been able to regulate the fee structure and donations in these institutions. Even the courts have only played with the terms such as payment seats, management quotas etc., without addressing the basic issue of fee structure.

PRIVATIZATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION

            “The destiny of India is now being shaped in her class rooms”. This is the opening sentence of the Kothari Education Commission report (1964-66). What kind of destiny has been actually shaped during the last sixty years? There are thousands of schools without primary needs. The position of teacher’s economic condition is also poor when compared to USA teachers. Majority of teacher educational institutions are under the control of private sector. The main aim of private organizations is to get profit.

It is not only students but also teachers who are at the receiving end of the ongoing transformation in higher and professional education. The nation today witnesses the declining popularity of teaching as a profession, not only among the students that we produce, but also among parents, scientists, society and the government. The teaching profession today attracts only those who have missed all other “better” opportunities in life, and is increasingly mired in bureaucratic controls and anti-education concepts such as “hours” of teaching “load”, “paid-by-the-hour”, “contractual” teachers etc. With privatisation reducing education to a commodity, teachers are reduced to tutors and teaching is reduced to coaching. The consumerist boom and the growing salary differentials between teachers and other professionals and the value systems of the emerging free market economy have made teaching one of the least attractive professions that demands more work for less pay. Yet, the society expects teachers not only to be inspired but also to do an inspiring job!

PRESENT STATUS OF TEACHER EDUCATION

Permission is granted by the NCTE regional centres to number of teacher education institutions/colleges especially in the private unaided sector. Take for example, in Andhra Pradesh, there are more than 300 B.Ed Colleges in the private unaided sector and there are less than 20 B.Ed colleges in Government and aided sector. Is there any kind of supervision either by the university authorities or by the government officials or by the officers of NCTE with regard to availability of the staff during college days, proper attendance of the students, proper organization and running of different programmes of B.Ed Course? It is a doubtful validity. The first and foremost supervising authority for running B.Ed programme is the concerned University. The concerned officials of the university have to make frequent surprise visits to the B.Ed Colleges under its Jurisdiction. If any loopholes identified, necessary steps may be taken for rectifying them at the earliest possible time; then only the quality of B.Ed programmes can be improved.

In the most of the private B.Ed. colleges in the state of Andhra Pradesh, there are two or three teaching staff only. In some of the universities, there are no selection committees for these colleges. The managements will run the colleges according to their whims and fancies. In majority of the situations, they are charging Rs.6000/- for a set of B.Ed. records which cost about Rs.300/- in the market. They will pay less than Rs. 5000/- to the teaching staff. They are collecting huge amounts from the students under the heads; ‘practical examinations’, ‘study tours’, etc. they allow less than 20% attendance students to the examinations by collecting huge amounts from them. Some private management resort to all types of fraud activities. Then, who will set right these things? The first and foremost is the concerned affiliating university, then the state government and NCTE at the regional level and national level. Honesty persons with surprise visits can make the situation better.

CONCLUSION

            India is a developing country. Different types of religious people are living in the country. We have thousand years of tradition and culture. Now we are living in the technological and modern world. Because of globalization a lot of change occurring. Education is a primary need for all in the society. It is the duty of government to provide free education for all up to 14 years. All people have no opportunity to study higher and professional education. Now majority of professional educational institutions are under the control of private organizations. Especially all teacher educational institutions are in the private sector. The main aim of private sector is to get profit. How it is possible to expect quality education? It is not possible to study Medicine or Engineering course for a poor student in the society. It is necessary to establish more and more professional and higher educational institutions in the country. Teacher is a national builder. He has a capacity to change the world. There are some benefits and losses due to privatization of professional education. But India is a developing country. It is better to establish all professional educational institutions under the government sector. Then only it is possible to study all type of courses for poor section children and India will become developed country in the world.




Ulysses by Alfred Lord Tennyson: A Summary


The dramatic monologue, Ulysses, narrating the feelings of the legendary hero, “Odysseus,” alludes to both Homer’s “Odyssey” as well as Dante’s “Inferno.” It was written, when, after the death of Tennyson’s close friend, Henry Hallam, he was dispirited. The poem was thus, a vehicle for him to overcome his dejected mood, in his own words, the “need of going forward and braving the struggles of life.”

Part-wise Summary

Part 1

It little profits that an idle king,
By this still hearth, among these barren crags,
Match’d with an aged wife, I mete and dole
Unequal laws unto a savage race,
That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.
I cannot rest from travel: I will drink
Life to the lees: All times I have enjoy’d
Greatly, have suffer’d greatly, both with those
That loved me, and alone, on shore, and when
Thro’ scudding drifts the rainy Hyades
Vext the dim sea: I am become a name;
For always roaming with a hungry heart
Much have I seen and known; cities of men
And manners, climates, councils, governments,
Myself not least, but honour’d of them all;
And drunk delight of battle with my peers,
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.
I am a part of all that I have met;
Yet all experience is an arch wherethro’
Gleams that untravell’d world whose margin fades
For ever and forever when I move.
How dull it is to pause, to make an end,
To rust unburnish’d, not to shine in use!
As tho’ to breathe were life! Life piled on life
Were all too little, and of one to me
Little remains: but every hour is saved
From that eternal silence, something more,
A bringer of new things; and vile it were
For some three suns to store and hoard myself,
And this gray spirit yearning in desire
To follow knowledge like a sinking star,
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.

Summary: Ulysses, an aged king of Ithaka, feels bored of his unproductive (idle) life. He declares that it is useless (It little profits), to sit beside an equally elderly wife by a “still hearth” and deliver (mete), “Unequal” rewards and punishments (laws), to uncivilized subjects. This “savage race” remains content by fulfilling daily mundane obligations (hoard, and sleep, and feed), while hardly caring to know their king. After this brief enumeration of his revolting surrounding, he voices his innermost desires. “I cannot rest from travel,” he states, thereby hinting at his eternal roving spirit. Seeing life as a drink, he further affirms that he resolves to explore (drink), life to the fullest (lees).After that, he proceeds to describe at length how his experiences have been. “All times I have enjoy’d/ Greatly, have suffer’d greatly,” he declares, either alone or others, on land (on shore), or, when the sea has been agitated by a violent downpour (scudding drifts), due to the “rainy Hyades,” (the stars in the constellation Taurus, often related to heavy rain). These travels, spurred by his insatiable thirst (hungry heart) to move on, have finally enabled him to earn fame (I am become a name). And the treasure he has accumulated – knowledge about different places with diverse “manners, climates, councils, governments,” where he has been “honoured” by all. Such a detailed estimation of his achievements finally seems to get summed up by another poignant revelation, “”I am a part of all that I have met,” thereby plaintively harping on how the adventures are inseparable from him. It is imperative to “live life to the lees,” for “all experience” appears to him as “an arch,” on which the more he moves, the greater the “margins” of an exotic, “untraveled world” seem to fade, opening up new possibilities, fresh horizons. Thus, there is hardly any utility in pausing (How dull it is to pause), or making “an end.” Likening himself to a metal, he justifies that inactivity is bound to erode his finer instincts of undertaking new adventures, (To rust unburnished, not to shine in use!).For to him, life signifies more than mere breathing; his extensive passion for finding something new cannot be gratified even in manifold lifetimes! And, he desperately aims to dedicate every additional hour of his life in an honest pursuit of adventure, (but every hour is saved/From that eternal silence).Moreover, he is now an aged man, a “grey spirit,” and since three years (three suns) have been wasted, he is now single-mindedly geared up “To follow knowledge” as it sinks like a “star.”

Part 2

This is my son, mine own Telemachus,
To whom I leave the sceptre and the isle,—
Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfil
This labour, by slow prudence to make mild
A rugged people, and thro’ soft degrees
Subdue them to the useful and the good.
Most blameless is he, centred in the sphere
Of common duties, decent not to fail
In offices of tenderness, and pay
Meet adoration to my household gods,
When I am gone. He works his work, I mine.

Summary: The second stanza begins with Ulysses introducing his son, “Telemachus” on whom he intends to “leave the sceptre and the isle.”It is because he believes that his son, by dint of his patience, (slow prudence), and willingness, would slowly (soft degrees), civilize the “rugged people” of Ithaka. Unlike Ulysses, “Telemachus” is a family man, religiously devoted to fulfilling both household duties as well as others, (common duties).Consequently, being alienated from his father in temperament, he is disposed to execute his work in his way,(He works his work, I mine).

Part 3

There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail:
There gloom the dark, broad seas. My mariners,
Souls that have toil’d, and wrought, and thought with me—
That ever with a frolic welcome took
The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed
Free hearts, free foreheads—you and I are old;
Old age hath yet his honour and his toil;
Death closes all: but something ere the end,
Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods.
The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks:
The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs: the deep
Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends,
‘T is not too late to seek a newer world.
Push off, and sitting well in order smite
The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds
To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths
Of all the western stars, until I die.
It may be that the gulfs will wash us down:
It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.
Tho’ much is taken, much abides; and tho’
We are not now that strength which in old days
Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are;
One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.

Summary: In the third part, Ulysses directly makes the reader acknowledge the objects that would help him to attain his dream – the ship or “vessel” that is getting ready to sail and “the dark, broad seas.” Having ascertained his mission, he now dwells on his “mariners,” who, endowed with bountiful energy (Free hearts), and confidence (free foreheads) have confronted life’s hazards with him, “Souls that have toil’d, and wrought, and thought with me.”And, even though they have become old, yet it does not mean that they can while away aimlessly, “Old age hath yet his honour and his toil.” “Death” he asserts is an inescapable termination but “some” noble “work” “may yet be done.” So, while the stars start emerging, (The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks), the moon ascends (climbs), he calls his comrades, “Come, my friends.”Urging them to strike the “furrows” with oars, he claims that “T is not too late to seek a newer world.” He plans to sail beyond the “baths” and imagines of reaching (after death), the “Happy Isles,” the Island of the Blessed where Greek heroes enjoyed permanent bliss. He reaffirms that though the old strength has been “taken” by “time and fate,” the “heroic” spirit “abides” or remains in him and his companions. So the ultimate clarions call to his mates become, “To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield,” or in a nutshell, to continue and never give up.

Here is a detailed analysis of the poem to understand its background, themes, figures of speech.




Describe a creative inventor or scientist you know


IELTS Cue Card/ Candidate Task Card 283 with Model Answer:

Describe a creative inventor or scientist you know about.

You should say:

  • who this person is/was
  • what this person does/did
  • how he know this person

and explain why you think this person is a creative scientist or inventor.

[You
will have to talk about the topic for one to two minutes. You have one
minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes
to help you if you wish.]

Model Answer 1:
Mr Yushuki Kawatara is an emerging scientist in Honk Kong. He is reputed for inventing alternative energy for using for various purposes. He is not famous like the other scientist of the world as he does not want to be celebrated. I will describe him now and thank you for asking me the question.

We need energy in our everyday life. On the other side, we need to pay for the energy we are consuming. Often the bills are more than our expectation. So, an alternative source of energy is the best solution which will reduce the cost and at the same time will provide a continuous support to the users. The invention of Mr Yushuki Kawatara is able to provide a long and continuous support and at the same time, the technology is less expensive. His experiments are in initial level but have become successful. As a result, we are expecting something special from his side. 

Mr Yushuki Kawatara mostly researches on renewable energy. The concept is nothing new but has many aspects to explore. Solar energy is one of the renewable sources. It could be used for many times and in fact, it will not finish soon. So, this is a potential source of energy that humans can utilise for their daily use. But the issue is a bit complex and not accessible for all. So, he is trying to invent something different than the usual methods. Using sunlight for the source of energy has become older in the present days. So, he tried to invent the methods of creating energy using water. Water is available everywhere and accessible for all. Besides, if he becomes completely successful, everyone could be able to set an energy depot at their home for a minimal cost.

I came to know about him as he lives in the same locality where I live in the city. I love to live in a calm atmosphere and so my residence is in a corner. Mr Yushuki Kawatara is also a peace loving man. He does not like to live in crowd and noise. So, he also selected the same area for his residence. Besides, it is a must to have a quiet place or deep research and invention. However, I met him one day when a friend of mine took me to his home for some purposes. It was my first meeting with him. Then gradually I came to know that he was a scientist and trying to invent something for the people. Initially, he did not want to disclose his invention but later, being confirmed about my identity, not as a journalist, he told about the invention.

I think he is a creative person. There are many logics to support my thought. He is creative in the sense that he is trying to invent something very special from the usual elements available in nature. Besides, he is not like the other scientists who want to expose themselves by inventing minor issues. He always wants to hide himself and avoids confronting media. As a result, he is not that much celebrated except his familiar people. His intelligence level is higher than any other ordinary people. I had no doubt about his creativeness when I had talks with him for the first time. In inquired about a lot of things and he answered smartly against all of the questions.