Taking CSR Seriously in 2016

Cost management, demand from the public and increased stakeholder scrutiny is motivating companies to become more socially and environmentally responsible. Operating businesses in a manner exceeding the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectation.


Corporate social responsibility goes beyond making charitable donations or suggesting staff undertake voluntary work. Whilst working with charities and enabling staff to do a number of days charity work on company pay is an aspect of CSR, a rounded policy should go further.

Responsible Environmental Practices

Research conducted by the Environment Agency shows evidence of an attitude shift. In 2005 25 per cent of SMEs were concerned about the environment and taking action to curb their environmental impact. By 2015 that figure had risen to 58 per cent of SMEs with an environmental policy.

CSR covers global issues; recycling, utilising renewable energy and donating unsold product rather than landfilling it, whilst also considering more localised responsibilities such as bird control services in London and elsewhere. This can include using firms such as http://www.vvenv.co.uk/ and others to ensure that any control measures meet with legislation and best practice.

Businesses implementing sustainable practices report benefits including reduced costs, positive customer response, improved profitability and making them a more attractive employer.

Responsible Supply Chain Management

A CSR policy should be applied across the supply chain and taken into consideration when commercial decisions are being made.

The 2013 collapse of the Rana Plaza in Bangladesh caused the death of 1,200 low-paid workers and retailers including Marks & Spencer, Primark and H&M became embroiled in a PR nightmare. Customers are not comfortable with companies using suppliers that disregard the health and safety of their employees.

Staff Welfare

In a survey for Forbes magazine over 75 per cent of respondents cited that one of the benefits of CSR was better employees. Either as a result of being able to attract better talent or their CSR programmes developing better employees.

The health and wellbeing of employees is the cornerstone of a CSR policy. Competitive remuneration packages, a focus on employee stability, and opportunities for training and development, with promotion prospects all improve staff satisfaction and retention.

A comprehensive CSR policy should mean clients want to work with a company. In addition, by operating more efficiently costs are reduced and employees are proud of the company they work for, motivating them to perform at their best.

Medical Isolating Transformers: Principal Types

Medical Isolating Transformers: Principal Types

In medical settings it often is necessary to have several devices connected at the same time to a medical electrical system. In order to achieve this safely, the devices should be connected through an isolation transformer. This provides galvanic isolation between primary and secondary windings, which has the benefits of limiting leakage of currents to earth, isolating the electrical supply to life-saving devices, protecting supply in case of a circuit fault and guarding against electrical surges, spikes and noise.


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The basic criteria that must be met by a medical isolation transformer are specified in the BS EN 60601-1 standards. In practical use, however, different designs are required to meet different applications that exist in medical settings.

Type B Transformers

Devices commonly used in patient care, such as computers and video monitors, can present the risk of tripping the electrical supply to whole room due to their natural earth leakage. Type B medical isolation transformers are used to provide a pseudo-mains supply to medical equipment, where the secondary winding is earthed, forming a quasi-neutral. This type of transformer can be applied to medical devices which predate the BS EN 60602 standards to allow them to meet the new standards for earth leakage, extending the service life of expensive equipment.

Type F Transformers

This type of transformer is used when power supply systems need to be physically insulated from earth in order to reduce leakage from the secondary winding to values of less than 5mA. The use of toroidal transformers by Siga and other manufacturers in this setting creates an extra level of protection for vulnerable patients, who could suffer fatal effects from even small amounts of earth leakage.

Other Applications

Electrical noise and interference can present a problem for sensitive equipment such as computers and lab instruments. Isolation transformers with specially designed electrostatic Faraday shields are used to block electric fields without interrupting the flow of current, reducing electromagnetic interference. Toroidal transformers typically generate very low electromagnetic interference, making them useful for these applications.

An additional use of isolation transformers is to increase safety. Transformers that isolate an electrical device from mains circuits reduce the risk from grounded objects which could be hazardous around high voltages. Isolation transformers employing a 1:1 ratio between primary and secondary windings can be used to protect patients and medical professionals from electric shocks.

“Let Performance and Selected Variables Among the 1st Batch of MAPEH Graduates”

 Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) is the main requirement used by the Department of Education (Dep. Ed.) for all teacher education graduates to earn the title professional teacher. As a future LET taker, I would like to dwell on the result of this research study as a basis for making necessary improvements or adjustments in the preparationbefore taking the LET.

LET is a test of the overall knowledge and proficiency of prospective teachers to provide a reliable structure, which the practice of prospective teachers can be measured and proven, and it gives access to continuing growth and development. A new teacher education graduate cannot exercise immediately hisher profession. He has to take standardized test first and one of these tests is the Licensure Examination for teachers (LET). Passing the LET would mean a passport to being a professional teacher.

As a result of the “No Child Left Behind” legislation, many state departments of education are advocating stricter standards of accountability to ensure only “Highly Qualified” teachers are employed, and many states require teacher education students to pass state licensure examinations to meet the “Highly Qualified” standard.

This study includes five factors such as curriculum, students, teachers, facilities and equipment and GPA which are believed to affect the LET performance of the first batch of

MAPEH graduates of the academic year 2008-2009.

Researchers believe that the LET performance of the graduate is affected by many factors. One of these is curriculum factor. Students will learn best when curriculum and instruction are congruent with that of the learner’s particular needs. LET performance of the students depends upon the curriculum offered. A well organized and carefully arranged subject would probably have better academic performance.

Another is the student factor. It is believed that LET performance of the students depends upon the behavior, attitudes and interest of the students. Thus, the learner is the center stage in the education process. In the learning process, there would be no teaching without the learner. The students would appear to be ideally prepared to take full advantage of a wide variety of intellectually stimulating and demanding contexts. They tend to prepare challenging tasks and assignments in which they stand to learn something new or increase their competence.

Teacher factor also plays a pivoting role in effective learning. Teachers’ educational qualifications can indeed affect their teaching efficiency. The teachers must be intelligent, resourceful, and flexible in order to impart more knowledge to the students. The personal qualities of a teacher play an important factor to develop authentic human relationships with their students.

The teacher is the most important factor outside the home and affects student learning.

However, becoming a teacher is not an easy task. It is said that teacher is considered as the key

to educative enterprise because she/he is the most single important factor outside of the house

affecting student’s learning development. Teachers who have goals, actively strive for learning and the make use of different methods in order to produce good result. She should be skillful in the practice of teaching performance which is concerned with dissemination or imparting of knowledge to his or her students.

Therefore, teachers need to create a curriculum that guides students to a path of success. Consequently, they need to receive guiding depending on their students need.

Facilities and equipment which include classroom, books and other educational materials are very important to facilitate students learning. Inadequate facilities and equipment are major contributory factors to poor academic performance of the students. Also proper lighting plays a particularly critical role in student performance.

At the same time, availability of school equipment and facilities can facilitate students learning. The students will not be interested and will not participate if there is no adequate equipment and facility. The lack of adequate classroom equipment to be used during practices and the conduct of classes discourage students to go to school and attend classes. However, when there is sufficient and adequate equipment and facilities, students become interested to discover and develop their potentials through their active participation. Thereby, their physically and mentally acquired knowledge equips them to achieve excellent grades. Thus, in adequate facilities and equipment are major contributory factors to poor programs of MAPEH curriculum.

On the other hand, grades are concrete and particular in which society use to judge what you are likely to accomplish in the future. School grades or marks are essential on the evaluation of the student by the teacher. Grades are used in the public schools to provide symbols of success; they are used to qualify for the National Honor Society and for the selection for scholarships and awards.

The moderating variables of this study such as age, gender, study habits and socio- economic status may also affect the LET performance of the graduates.

As stated age, affects the behavior of a student. When the child becomes adolescent, he/she develops a feeling of independence and maturation. However, in determinants of school achievement, gender may exist. It is found that females have more interest to go to school and more studios than males. However a study habit also is important in achieving good grades. Higher academic performance may be achieved by time management and study techniques. While socio-economic, as variable in this study is measured in terms of parents’ income, educational or degree of training received, and level of success attained with an occupation. It revealed that low- academic achiever have low self-esteem, having no study skills and generally come from low-socio-economic status.

The present study focuses on the performance of the first batch of MAPEH graduates in the Licensure Examination for teachers (LET) last October 2009.

Accredited K-12 Homeschooling

 Whether you look at online learning from the aspect of cost, convenience or even feasibility, it scores over traditional schooling on all counts. That is exactly what makes online home schooling such a great option for students and parents as well. They have the flexibility they require and also have access to a perfectly economical alternative that caters to their educational needs as well. More than just being cost effective, online home schooling also offers students many more options in terms of courses and electives they can opt for. Traditional schooling systems, however, have certain limitations concerning these areas and tend to throw up a lot more obstacles rather than offer viable solutions. Given the current circumstances, it only seems logical that alternative solutions that work need to be implemented at the earliest.

Online K-12 courses offer students a number of options to choose from. The greatest thing about being able to access your coursework online is that you can do it from practically anywhere and at any time. All you need to do is get your hands on a computer that has access to the Internet. Completion and submission of coursework too, can be done completely online, which certainly makes things a whole lot easier. This definitely offers a more comprehensive solution to address the urgent need for development of skills across the country. Moreover, getting your high school diploma from an accredited online high school in the country will certainly boost your chances of employment. Here are just a few reasons why you should think about earning your high school diploma from an accredited online school like Forest Trail Academy.

For starters, we’re one of the renowned accredited online high schools in the country. Forest Trail Academy is fully accredited and is registered with the Florida Department of Education. Moreover, our school is regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges & Schools Council on Accreditation and School Improvement (SACS CASI), and is also nationally accredited and a member of National Association of Private & Home Schools (N.A.P.H.S.). Our student testimonials are evidence enough of the quality of education we offer your children and the success rates we’ve witnessed over the past years. We provide our students with a full curriculum that has been aligned and articulated to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards.

But that’s not all. In addition to  courses, we also offer you courses for middle school and elementary school as well. We’re also the first online school in the country to have launched an online demo facility that allows you a preview of what it’s like to study in an online environment. If you’d like to know more about us or how to earn your high school diploma online, feel free to get in touch with us at www.foresttrailacademy.com. We look forward to welcoming you into our family at Forest Trail Academy!

A Study Of The Use Of Mathematics Laboratory For Teaching Mathematics By Developing A Strategy And Testing Its Effectiveness

 Guide:      Dr.S.S.Chaugule, Reader & Head Special Project Research Centre, YCMOU, Nasik, Maharashtra

Research student: Donnipad Manjunath


Mathematics, according to National Education Policy 1986, should be visualized as the vehicle to train a child to think, reason, analyze and articulate logically. Apart from being a specific subject, it should be treated as a concomitant to any subject involving analysis and reasoning. With the introduction of computers in schools, educational computing and emergence of learning through understanding of cause-effect relationships and the interplay of variables, the teaching of Mathematics will be suitably redesigned to bring it in line with modern technological devices so that learning takes place effectively.

Learning often takes place best when students have opportunities to express ideas and get feedback from their peers. But for feedback to be most helpful to learners, it must consist of more than the provision of correct answers. Feedback ought to be analytical, to be suggestive, and to come at a time when students are interested in it. And then there must be time for students to reflect on the feedback they receive, to make adjustments and to try again– a requirement of mathematics education that was neglected, due to rigorous practice of traditional methods of teaching. It was also observed that; students who frequently try to solve exercises related to new mathematics topics by finding the inter-connections and who discuss practical problems related to everyday life tend to score good in mathematicsexaminations. Teachers, who use of active learning strategies like students working onmathematics projects, connecting mathematical knowledge to everyday life when solvingmathematics problems and actively participating in peer-group interaction have always significantly contributed to good performance in mathematics.

The traditional didactic methods of teaching are no longer adequate to meet the demands ofmathematics education in line with National Education Policy 1986. In the light of NationalEducation Policy 1986, to develop the skills reiterated in the policy and to provide practical experience of mathematical concepts, assumptions, assertions and rules, an appropriate method of instruction or a strategy for teaching mathematics  and a suitable platform to use such strategy is the need of hour. “Any idea or a concept presented in a simple & appropriate form and the way that is suitable to learner’s ability and aptitude provides the best of understanding of it (Bruner 1966)”.

Every student has a unique way of thinking, learning and making sense of what he/she listens or observes. Their active imagination constantly builds new connections and assimilates new information. If the teacher is active speaker and persistently using traditional methods, the learning takes backseat and in the process some faulty ideas can also form and lead to several learning gaps. These learning gaps need to be identified, questioned and corrected before they result into misconceptions. These misconceptions lead to low self- efficacy among students resulting low performance in the subject of mathematics.  Learner learns faster, when he is influenced by his peer group and developing a sense of positive interdependence, besides reducing the role of teacher to facilitator. However, reducing the role of a teacher to facilitator and creating an atmosphere of positive interdependence among students, a change in methods of teaching is inevitable requirement. In a normal course of teaching mathematics in a classroom, creating such atmosphere as mentioned above is not possible.

So, a strategy for teaching mathematics in a different but suitable atmosphere that would transform the position of the teacher to facilitator of learning from an authoritarian and active speaker’s role was the need of the hour. Hence this experimental study was taken up.


1. To find out various methods being used in teaching Mathematics in regular classes

2. To find out teachers views about Mathematics Laboratory

3. To develop a strategy to be used in a Mathematics Laboratory set – up.

4. To test the effectiveness of the strategy developed for teaching in Mathematics Laboratory set-up

5. To suggest recommendations for the development of Mathematics Laboratory and training of Mathematics teachers


There was no difference between teaching Mathematics through Traditional Methods of teaching to that of teaching through a strategy developed for teaching mathematics inMathematics Laboratory atmosphere.


Teachers were not using Mathematics Laboratory as a platform for teaching Mathematics


The study was limited to only Kendriya Vidyalayas’ functioning in & around Nasik district and schools governed by State Government and affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education as well. The students’ sample of study was limited to class 10th students of Kendriya Vidyalaya, AFS Ojhar Nasik District, while teachers’ sample was limited to schools functioning in and around Ojhar, Nasik District. The investigation did not develop any standardized tests or psychological tests for the purpose of study, but prepared a questionnaire and got validated by experts from Department of Education, Yashwantrao Chavan Mahrashtra Open University.



Use of Strategy evolved to teach mathematics in a Mathematics Laboratory


Performance of students and improvement in their result


For this experimental study purpose, two different samples were chosen namely students’ sample and teachers’ sample. The students’ sample of the study consisted of a total of 80 students of class X standard of Kendriya Vidyalaya, Ojhar and while teachers’ sample consisted of 100 teachers of mathematics working in schools in & around Ojhar Nasik District

The sample of 80 students was divided into two groups’ viz., controlled and experimental group. The two groups were matched on the basis of their marks obtained in class IX on the basis of Continuous & comprehensive evaluation, a criteria being used in all Kendriya Vidyalayas’ for assessing the performance students at the end of an academic year.

The sample of 100 teachers from Primary to senior secondary level was chosen. However, 80% of teachers chosen were secondary teachers who handled class 10th Mathematics.


Tools like questionnaire, Visits, Observations and Interviews were used in the study. VariousMathematics Laboratories located different parts of country were visited and observations were recorded, besides visiting online Laboratory at Lower Columbia College, Washington State University, USA. Mathematics Laboratory at NCERT, New Delhi, Ramanujam Institute of Mathematics Learning Chennai, Mathematics Laboratory in Mysore based schools functioning at Bangalore and Mathematics Laboratory at Homi Bhabha Science Education Centre, Mumbai and Department of Mathematics, IIT, Powai, Mumbai were visited and Interviews were conducted on various strategies and techniques being employed to carry out the activities in Mathematics Laboratory.  Based on recorded observations and Interviews from Head, DESM, NCERT, Laboratory curators at Chennai and Bangalore questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was prepared to administer among 100 teachers selected as teachers’ sample study.


The research design of the study was “Two Groups Posttest Experimental Design”. Two groups namely, Control group and Experimental group were taken with each of them having a total of 40 students. The Research Methodology was Quasi Experimental Research Methodology.


A strategy consisting of three different methods namely; Expository method, Cooperative Learning Method and Problem Solving method coupled with Modelling was evolved. These three methods were administered as one unit but in three stages while teaching mathematicsin a Mathematics Laboratory. Each stage was defined with specific input and anticipated output. The role of teacher was active during first stage as teacher teaches mathematicsusing Expository method and during later two stages where Cooperative Learning at 2nd stage and problem solving coupled with modelling at 3rd stage the role of teacher is a facilitator of learning. At 3rd stage teacher’s role is not only a facilitator of learning but also ensures a learning outcome viz., social relevance of knowledge being assimilated by students.


  • ¬ Mathematics Laboratories functioning at NCERT, New Delhi and few other Laboratories located in different part of the country were visited to record the observations on the use of Mathematics Laboratory in day-to-day teaching leaning process. Interviews of Heads and Laboratory curators were carried out.
  • ¬ Laboratories functioning abroad visited online and observations were made. Interviews were also carried out with a Lab Head-cum-Teaching assistant of college of Lower Columbia, USA.
  • ¬ Suggestions and guidance seeking mail correspondence was done with a senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics Education, Education, School of Education, University of East Anglia Norwich. These suggestions and guidance were sought before preparing the questionnaire and formulating the strategy for teaching mathematics.
  • ¬ On the basis of observations and interviews, a questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was prepared and was validated by two experts, Department of Education, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nasik
  • ¬ Questionnaire was administered among those 100 teachers selected to gather their views and opinion on use of Mathematics Laboratory, various Teaching Methods and use of software in teaching mathematics.
  • ¬ On the basis of responses; a statistical analysis and interpretations were drawn and then, a strategy consisting of three methods; viz., Expository method, Cooperative Learning Method and Problem Solving method coupled with Modelling was developed.
  • ¬ The strategy evolved was used for 10 weeks on the Experimental group to teach mathematics in a Mathematics Laboratory atmosphere. The control group was taught the same mathematics content using normal classroom teaching.
  • ¬ The methods of teaching mathematics to control group were Traditional methods. The lesson plans (excluding the method of teaching and Mathematics Laboratory), worksheets and modules were the same to both control and Experimental groups.
  • ¬ At the end of 10 weeks; a Posttest was administered to both groups to evaluate and assess the performance of students. Meanwhile the data gathered through Questionnaire administered on teachers of mathematics and posttest administered on students was analyzed and Hypothesis was tested using statistical test of significance.
  • ¬ Hypothesis was rejected on the basis of statistical inference drawn and concluded that; the strategy evolved to teach mathematics in a mathematics laboratory was effective than the traditional methods of teaching.


  • ¬ Teachers who were trained through behaviourist model were not aware of methods like cooperative Learning; guided-Expository and problem-solving method integrated with modelling. So, these methods were less preferred to teach mathematics as compared to traditional didactic methods like Lecture; Lecture-Demonstration methods
  • ¬ Mathematics laboratory is not an integral part of curriculum framework in Maharashtra.
  • ¬ Mathematics laboratory cultivated research attitude among students, when it was integrated with strategy evolved
  • ¬ Mathematics Laboratory and its utility were given less importance during teaching degree pursuit. Majority of in-service teachers lack the knowledge of the modus-operandi using mathematics laboratory for teaching mathematics at school level.
  • ¬ Majority of teachers were not given in-service training in using computers and software to teach mathematics.
  • ¬ Use of computer and mathematical software to teach and provide conceptual knowledge of mathematics in a Mathematics Laboratory yielded positive reinforcement among students.
  • ¬ Use of computers and allied software was not in the curriculum of teaching degree pursuit. Hence teachers of mathematics were not aware of using computer and allied software to teach mathematics.
  • ¬ Strategy evolved to teach mathematics helped in effective content management.
  • ¬ Computer and mathematical software used in Mathematics Laboratory has provided hands-on experience of mathematical knowledge taught
  • ¬ The strategy evolved has also helped students to know the social relevance of knowledge learnt.
  • ¬ 3rd stage of the strategy helped teacher to create learning problems and situations that will actively involve students and stimulate interest in how mathematics is applied in real life situations.
  • ¬ There is significant difference between the mean scores of Experimental Group and Control group. The t-test revealed that the t-value statistically arrived was 5.59 for the degree of freedom 78. When t-value was compared with 0.05 level and 0.01 levels of significance for the same degree of freedom, the t-value arrived was significantly greater than both levels of significance. So, the strategy evolved for teaching mathematics in a mathematics laboratory was effective than didactic traditional methods.


  • ¬ The teachers of mathematics shall the newly developed methods or strategies to teach mathematics instead of following age-old methods of teaching.
  • ¬ The teachers shall use the strategy evolved for teaching mathematics in mathematics laboratory to enrich their teaching experiences.
  • ¬ Mathematics laboratory should be made an integral part of curriculum of mathematics
  • ¬ Mathematics Teaching could be carried out in a Mathematics Laboratory by integrating mathematics laboratory into regular curriculum.
  • ¬ A specific curriculum in the form of credits shall be prescribed as regular syllabi for Mathematics Laboratory and could be made it mandatory to students to complete.
  • ¬ Process of Evaluation and Assessment shall be based on minimum number of credits completion. Completion of this minimum number of mandatory credits by each student at each class could be made mandatory. Promotion to next class could be linked with this mandatory completion.
  • ¬ Process of Evaluation and Assessment techniques shall be changed to a different format such as making rubrics for positive interdependence, group investigation skills etc., so that; academic performance of students could be improved along with social skills and peer interaction.
  • ¬ Teaching through computers shall be introduced in the Basic teaching degree pursuit. All the pre-service teachers shall get ample exposure in using embedded atmosphere to teach mathematics.
  • ¬ All In-service teachers shall be given training in Information & Communication Technologies, so that; the teaching experiences could be enriched. Pre-service teacher-students be given an exposure to Mathematics Laboratory and its usage in teaching mathematics. Techniques or strategies to integrate it ICT shall be taught during their teacher education programme.
  • ¬ Addition human resources with mathematics background could be given for mathematics laboratory so as to enable the students to use the laboratory not only during their allotted periods, but also during leisure periods
  • ¬ In every school Mathematics Laboratory shall be established and teaching of mathematics shall be carried out through mathematics laboratory.


This study has an influence on the initiation of using mathematics laboratory in teaching of mathematics at secondary level. As the need for good strategy for teaching mathematics so as to improve the result and performance of students in board examinations, the study has thrown a light on the use of appropriate strategy that is the integration of three methods of teaching namely Expository, Cooperative and Problem Solving method coupled with Modelling in a laboratory atmosphere. As per this study, use of strategy evolved for teaching mathematics in a Mathematics Laboratory as described there are States like Mahrashtra where Mathematics laboratory is not an integral part of curriculum framework. So this study signifies that, mathematics laboratory could be made an integral part of curriculum framework and create mandatory use of lab for teaching mathematics. The ultimate result of the study revealed that; strategy was more effective instructional paradigm for teaching mathematics as compared to traditional methods of teaching. Furthermore, mathematics laboratory appeared to be a befitting platform for creating positive interdependence as compared to classroom.


The study established that; traditional didactic methods of teaching do not facilitate learning by understanding nor provide opportunities to students to relate their knowledge with real life, besides making low performers in the subject of mathematics. It was further established that, use of strategy evolved integrating three different methods for teaching mathematics in a Lab atmosphere yielded improved performance of students. So, the study found a positive and significant correlation between the academic achievement of secondary school students and the use of different methods of teaching in a Laboratory atmosphere. Hence, teachers teaching mathematics shall use Mathematics Laboratory as a platform and by using the strategy or any method other than didactic methods to make a significant impact in the knowledge construction so as to improve the performance of secondary school students.


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Short Autobiography of 'A Horse' (250 Words)

Now I am getting old and stiff in the joints. I like to mediate while grazing in the pasture. I think that was the happiest part of my life. At that time I had no work to do and could run about after my mother without any restraint. Most of my time was spent in the fields.

But that could not last for ever. When I was old enough, the trainer came and fastened a long rope to my head and then began driving me round and round in circles with his long whip. I was so tired that I could scarcely stand.

Then I was bought by a young officer as a polo pony, and I soon got to love the game. He was a kind master and a good rider. But he get into debt and had to sell me.

i was bought by a gentleman and a lady who kept a buggy. They trained me to run in shafts. I hated this work. My owner got disgusted at last and sold me to a gentleman who was fond of hunting.

I was delighted to get back to saddle-work. But an accident put a stop to that jolly life. I was in hospital for four weeks. Then I was sold to a gentleman who wanted a quiet riding-horse. He was a kind master. He used me well. 


Now I am old. My master gives me very little work. I spend most of my time grazing in the pasture, and leading a quiet, contended life. 

Short Autobiography of 'A Rupee' (171 Words)

I am now an old coin. I have been in circulation many, many years. I have become dulled and worn and the lettering on my back almost rubbed out.

But I can still remember my early youth. At that time, I was in Government Treasury. I was shining silver that time. I was very proud of my smart appearance.

My active life began when I was paid over the counter of a bank.The shopkeepers looked pleased when they had me in their hands.

I soon found we were a mixed company. But, I soon found a number of rupees of other metals of my own rank, but none so new and bright as I was.

Some of them were jealous of my smart appearance, but at last I got good society and most of my time I have been in the pockets and purses of the rich.

I have no time to tell the hundredth part of my adventures. I have lived an active life, and never rested long anywhere. I am glad of this.